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The last Holy Roman Emperor and first Emperor of Austria. The supreme religious deception is that of the Antichrist, a pseudo-messianism by which man glorifies himself in place of God and of his Messiah come in the flesh". Son of the future emperor Leopold II and Maria Luisa of Spain, Francis received his political education from his uncle, Emperor Joseph II, who disliked his nephew’s unimaginative outlook and stubbornness but praised his application and sense of duty and justice. Francis II (German: Franz II. ; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor from 1792 to 1806 and, as Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria from 1804 to 1835. The legend first appears in the 7th-century apocalyptic text known as the Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius; that and the oracles of the Tiburtine Sibyl are its two most important sources. As the head of the Holy Roman Empire and the ruler of the vast multi-ethnic Habsburg hereditary lands, Francis felt threatened by the French revolutionaries and later Napoleon's expansionism as well as their social and political reforms which were being exported throughout Europe in the wake of the conquering French armies. The legend predicts that in the end times, a last emperor would appear on earth to reestablish the Roman Empire and assume his function as biblical katechon who stalls the coming of the Antichrist. The Catechism of the Catholic Church speaks only of Christ as the king who is to be manifested in "the last days". Corrections? In 1813, for the fourth and final time, Austria turned against France and joined Great Britain, Russia, Prussia and Sweden in their war against Napoleon. [7] It speaks of this manifestation as associated by his recognition by "all Israel"[8] and preceded by the Church's ultimate trial, "a religious deception offering men an apparent solution to their problems at the price of apostasy from the truth. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Napoleonic wars drastically weakened Austria, making it entirely landlocked and threatened its preeminence among the states of Germany, a position that it would eventually cede to the Kingdom of Prussia. Yet Napoleon had agreed beforehand and therefore it happened. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. On 6 January 1808, he married again to another first cousin, This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 05:17. Maximilian Franz, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, Prince Filippo "Filippino", Grand Prince of Tuscany, England expects that every man will do his duty, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Francis_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor&oldid=988118120, Grand Masters of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Grand Crosses of the Military Order of Maria Theresa, Recipients of the House Order of Fidelity, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Zähringer Lion, Grand Crosses of the Order of the Southern Cross, Supernumerary Knights of the Order of the Holy Spirit, Grand Crosses of the Order of Christ (Portugal), Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint James of the Sword, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Ferdinand and of Merit, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from August 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1 March 1792/11 August 1804 – 2 March 1835, Renamed Maria Leopoldina upon her marriage; married. Generations are numbered from the children of, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWwheatcroft2009 (, Maria Leopoldina, Empress of Brazil and Queen of Portugal, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Chevaliers de la Toisón d'Or - Knights of the Golden Fleece", "Ritter-Orden: Militärischer Maria-Theresien-Orden", "Liste chronologique des chevaliers de l'ordre du Saint-Esprit depuis son origine jusqu'à son extinction (1578-1830)", "A Evolução da Banda das Três Ordens Militares (1789-1826)". After the Congress of Vienna (1815), Francis supported his chief minister, Metternich, in the conservative and restrictive policies that became known as the Metternich system. He reappeared in 19th century prophecy when French legitimists believed that the count of Chambord, Henry V of France would be the new king. Nonetheless, two officers heavily implicated in the conspiracy were hanged and gibbeted, while numerous others were sentenced to imprisonment (many of whom died from the conditions). He supported the conservative political system of Metternich in Germany and Europe after the Congress of Vienna (1815). [24] The lyrics were adapted for later Emperors and the music lives on as the Deutschlandlied. In 1794, a "Jacobin" conspiracy was discovered in the Austrian and Hungarian armies. After the abdication of Napoleon following the War of the Sixth Coalition, Austria participated as a leading member of the Holy Alliance at the Congress of Vienna, which was largely dominated by Francis's chancellor Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich culminating in a new European map and the restoration of Francis's ancient dominions (except the Holy Roman Empire which was dissolved). After Austria took the field against Napoleon for the third time in 1805 and was again defeated, Napoleon dictated the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; Francis abdicated his title in 1806. In 1804, he had no compunction about announcing that through his authority as Holy Roman Emperor, he declared he was now Emperor of Austria (at the time a geographical term that had little resonance). During the War of the Third Coalition, the Austrian forces met a crushing defeat at Austerlitz, and Francis had to agree to the Treaty of Pressburg, which greatly weakened Austria and brought about the final collapse of Holy Roman Empire. [11] After that date, he reigned as Francis I, Emperor of Austria. Francis II, (born February 12, 1768, Florence—died March 2, 1835, Vienna), the last Holy Roman emperor (1792–1806) and, as Francis I, emperor of Austria (1804–35); he was also, as Francis, king of Hungary (1792–1830) and king of Bohemia (1792–1836). When Leopold died with tragic suddenness in 1792, his young son, Francis, delivered a coronation oath that went through the motions of conforming, but soon afterward he returned to the old ways. In 1809, Francis attacked France again, hoping to take advantage of the Peninsular War embroiling Napoleon in Spain. Generations are numbered by male-line descent from the first archdukes. He was later defeated by Napoleon. Francis's brother Alexander Leopold (at that time Palatine of Hungary) wrote to the Emperor admitting "Although we have caught a lot of the culprits, we have not really got to the bottom of this business yet." Despite his death, one of her predictions dated 1890 declares he is yet "reserved for the great epochs", i.e. His disciplinarian regime was a stark contrast to the indulgent Florentine Court of Leopold. ; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he abdicated soon after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon. Then, on 22 July, Napoleon issued an ultimatum to Francis demanding that he abdicates as Holy Roman Emperor by 10 August. The year 1809 saw Austria’s fourth unsuccessful war against Napoleon, during which Francis, always distrustful of revolutionary or even popular movements, abandoned pro-Habsburg Tirolese rebels to France and Bavaria. By the Treaty of Campo Formio, he ceded the left bank of the Rhine to France in exchange for Venice and Dalmatia. He gradually worsened throughout early 1792; on the afternoon of 1 March Leopold died, at the relatively young age of 44. The author Franz Grillparzer, a Habsburg patriot, had one play suppressed solely as a "precautionary" measure. The Emperor wrote that Francis was "stunted in growth", "backward in bodily dexterity and deportment", and "neither more nor less than a spoiled mother's child." Omissions? He added that "we hereby decree that we regard the bond which until now tied us to the states of the Empire as dissolved"[10] in effect dissolving the empire. He had an early taste of power while acting as Leopold's deputy in Vienna while the incoming Emperor traversed the Empire attempting to win back those alienated by his brother's policies. He was also king of Hungary, Croatia Francis II continued his leading role as an opponent of Napoleonic France in the Napoleonic Wars, and suffered several more defeats after Austerlitz. The German Confederation, a loose association of Central European states was created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire. To complete his training, Francis was sent to join an army regiment in Hungary and he settled easily into the routine of military life.[4]. Last Roman Emperor, also called Last World Emperor or Emperor of the Last Days, is a figure of medieval European legend, which developed as an aspect of Christian eschatology.The legend predicts that in the end times, a last emperor would appear on earth to reestablish the Roman Empire and assume his function as biblical katechon who stalls the coming of the Antichrist. On 2 March 1835, 43 years and a day after his father's death, Francis died in Vienna of a sudden fever aged 67, in the presence of many of his family and with all the religious comforts. Later, he led Holy Roman Empire into the French Revolutionary Wars. [27] Francis was interred in the traditional resting place of Habsburg monarchs, the Kapuziner Imperial Crypt in Vienna's Neue Markt Square. "[3] The young Archduke was isolated, the reasoning being that this would make him more self-sufficient as it was felt by Joseph that Francis "failed to lead himself, to do his own thinking." Soon after Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine, Francis abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor.

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