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In August 1503, Henry’s eldest daughter, Margaret, married James IV to bring both countries even closer together. Nevertheless, Henry’s supporters managed to capture Vicenza, and he received an embassy from Venice, who offered him the friendship of their city. Heinrich's policy aimed at restoring imperial rights, especially in imperial Italy and in the western border area of the empire.  As the Colonna family had possession of the area around the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Maria Maggiore and the Colosseum, Henry was forced to perform his coronation on 29 June 1312 at the Lateran. But the tomb didn't have a long life: for political reasons it was dismantled and the parts were reused in other places in the square. Among the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Henry is numbered only in parentheses, as he did not exercise the sole kingship. Encyclopedia of World Biography. After Engelbert's death in 1225, Duke Louis I of Bavaria took over the guardianship. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/henry-vii-0, "Henry VII  These measures, plus a massive levy imposed on the Italian towns, caused the Guelph cities to turn against Henry, and he encountered further resistance when he sought to enforce imperial claims on what had become communal lands and rights, and attempted to replace communal regulations with imperial laws. The cities of Piedmont and Lombardy submitted to him, and, in accordance with his proclaimed program of peace and impartial justice, he reconciled the warring factions and restored the exiles to their homes. In July 1310 he engineered the removal of Henry of Carinthia. Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor. Faced with papal opposition to his continued presence in Italy and furious with the King of Naples for opposing his imperial mission to Rome, Henry called an imperial Diet at Pisa in 1313, assembled another army, and marched again toward Rome, determined to free the city from Neapolitan occupation. , After spending two months in Genoa, Henry continued on to Pisa by ship, where he was eagerly received by the inhabitants, who were the traditional enemies of Florence and were Ghibelline. With this, Heinrich came into conflict with the powerful French King Philip IV. Despite the fact that Henry was formally betrothed to the Přemyslid princess Agnes of Bohemia, daughter of King Ottokar I of Bohemia, Engelbert planned his marriage with Isabella of England, one of the daughters of King John Lackland; however, this union never took place.  His body was taken to Pisa. Conquer these questions—and expand your mental empire—in this quiz of emperors, conquerors, and men of war. The German princes, angered by his city-friendly policies, forced him however to issue in Worms on 1 May 1231 the Statutum in favorem principum, directed against the cities, and by their complaints turned Frederick II against his son. Dante also alludes to him numerous times in "Purgatorio" as the savior, who will bring imperial rule back to Italy, and end the inappropriate temporal control of the Church. Henry seems to have been a lively, cultured ruler and kept many Minnesänger at his court. Henry was born in Sicily, the only son of King Frederick II and his first wife, Constance of Aragon.  So began the siege of Florence, Henry possessing some 15,000 infantrymen and 2,000 cavalry, up against a combined Florentine strength of 64,000 defenders. By 1312 he arrived in Rome, by then opposed by many cities, the King of Naples, and even the Pope himself. He was the seventh Henry to rule Germany, but in order to avoid confusion with the Luxembourg emperor Henry VII, he is usually numbered Henry (VII).. Henry became caught up in the internal political machinations of the Holy Roman Empire with the assassination of King Albert I on 1 May 1308. In the same year, Henry renewed the league between the Hohenstaufen and the French royal Capetian dynasty. Siena, Bologna, Lucca, and smaller cities, sent men to help man the walls. meager personal resources, and, like his predecessors, he used some of the imperial resources to increase the wealth and power of his dynasty. Frederick II and the princes tried Henry on 4 July 1235 in Worms and dethroned him. Husband of Margaret of Brabant Useful information is in J. R. Tanner and others, eds., The Cambridge Medieval History (8 vols., 1913-1936), and in a number of studies of Dante's work and thought, such as Charles T. Davis, Dante and the Idea of Rome (1957). He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg.  Raised at the French court, he was the lord of comparatively small properties in a peripheral and predominantly French-speaking part of the Holy Roman Empire. noun ?1275–1313, Holy Roman Emperor (1312–13) and, as Henry VI, count of Luxembourg (1288–1313). Henry in Paradiso xxx.137f is "He who came to reform Italy before she was ready for it". An able, ruthless, and secretive monarch, he led the empire into a…, Guelphs (gwĕlfs), European dynasty tracing its descent from the Swabian count Guelph or Welf (9th cent.  He also imposed his brother-in-law, Amadeus of Savoy, as the vicar-general in Lombardy. He was physically robust, although lame, and about 1.66 m (5' 4½") tall. Although he subdued a number of Tuscan towns, he failed to take Florence, the leading Guelf city in Tuscany. He was the first emperor since the death of Frederick II in 1250, ending the great interregnum of the Holy Roman Empire; however, his premature death threatened to undo his life´s work. , Henry felt he needed to obtain a papal imperial coronation, partly because of the lowly origins of his house, and partly because of the concessions he had been forced to make to obtain the German crown in the first place.  He then refused to commit, as Pope Clement V had requested, to seek a truce with Robert of Naples, and he didn’t rule out attacking the southern kingdom. Among the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Henry is numbered only in parentheses, as he did not exercise the sole kingship. , Despite plague and desertions, he managed to extract Brescia’s surrender in September 1311. The princes adopted a wait-and-see stance, while Henry's forces were stuck in fights with the Lords of Hohenlohe, Margrave Herman V of Baden, and the City of Worms. Following the death of his father, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, Henry stood for election, and tied with Wenceslaus III, Duke of Saxony. Frederick, the only surviving son of Henry (VII), was named in the testament of his grandfather Frederick II, were the Emperor entrusted him with the Duchy of Austria, the Marquisate of Styria and 10,000 uncias. For the son and co-ruler of the Emperor Frederick II, see, The troops of emperor Henry VII defeat the, Altar of King Henry VII in the Codex Balduini Trevirensis (1350), Wars against Florence and Robert of Naples, Commons category with page title different than on Wikidata, Henry VII and the Imperial army crossing the Alps into Italy, The troops of emperor Henry VII defeat the Guelph faction of Guido della Torre in Milan, Torture and execution of the Guelph captain Teobaldo Brusati at the siege of Brescia, https://historipediaofficial.wikia.org/wiki/Henry_VII,_Holy_Roman_Emperor?oldid=37410, 24 August 1313 (aged 40–41) 1313 (aged 37–38) (aged 38–41). In that year they had elected Rudolf I of Hapsburg, and in 1291 Adolf of Nassau. But because most of them were pro-imperial Ghibellines, suspicion and discontent were aroused among the Florentines and their Guelf (anti-imperialist) allies in Tuscany and Romagna. Rome was in a state of confusion as Henry approached the city walls. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. In July 1309, Pope Clement V confirmed Henry's election. It is possible he wrote some Minnelieder (courtly love poetry) himself. During his brief career he reinvigorated… The choice of place was intended to demonstrate the devotion of the Pisans to the Emperor. □. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. For this, the regency of the Sicilian kingdom went to his mother Constance and not to his father. noun Henry of Luxembourg, 1275?–1313, king of Germany 1309–13 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1312–13. After the death of Henry VII, two rivals, the Wittelsbach Ludwig of Bavaria and Frederick the Handsome of the House of Habsburg, laid claim to the crown.  Negotiations broke down due to Robert’s excessive monetary demands, as well as through the interference of Philip, who did not want such an alliance to succeed. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg. He was chosen German king in November 1308 at Frankfurt and was crowned at Aachen the following January, becoming the first German king of the House of Luxembourg. , His first target was the Guelph city of Siena, which he began to besiege, but within a week, Henry succumbed to malaria, which fast saw him become seriously ill. Fading rapidly, he left Siena on August 22, and was sheltering in the little town of Buonconvento near Siena when he died on 24 August 1313.
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