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history of yoga scholarly articles

Chief of ID, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Full or Associate Professor, Head of the Division of Geriatrics, Ardha Matsyendrasana— modified seated twist, Ardha Uttanasana—standing half forward bend, Attendance over 8-week intervention (mean, %), Copyright © 2020 The Gerontological Society of America. Additionally, there was a main effect for sex [ F (4,101) = 4.76, p = .001, partial η 2 = .16] with women showing greater flexibility than men. Both assessors and participants were blind to group placement at the time of baseline assessments. Eisenberg The yoga intervention was led by certified yoga instructors and designed as a beginner but progressive 8-week program. . et al. In fact, for the gait speed test, we observed a mean change of .09 for the yoga group and .16 for the control participants, both of which fall in the range for meaningful and substantial change estimates ( 23 ). S et al. . For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Sesto The authors thank yoga instructors Jennifer Allen and Steven Willette and exercise specialists Jordan Orr and Merril Idiyalil for supervising the exercise groups. Regardless of the type of yoga, all yoga postures require the participants to hold and move between a series of stationary positions that use isometric contraction and relaxation of different muscle groups to create specific body alignments. Overall, we observed significant time effects for each of the balance, flexibility, strength, and mobility measures, indicating that both groups improved and Hatha yoga was just as effective as the conventional CDC strengthening guidelines in improving these functional fitness outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. CX For instance, the down dog posture ( adho mukha shvanasana ) involves sustaining one’s body weight on upper and lower body muscles including the trapezius, triceps, glutes, and hamstrings, forming an inverted V shape. No adverse events were reported in either group, which also is attributable to the supervised progressive nature of the exercise groups. . Lee Van Puymbroeck Overall, the 8-week Hatha yoga program was found to be just as effective as the CDC recommended stretching and strengthening exercises in improving functional fitness in older adults. R et al. It remains to be determined whether similar adherence to yoga programs and improvements in functional outcomes would be observed among other segments of the population such as ethnic and racial minority groups, low income groups, as well as older adults with lower levels of functioning or poor health. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. JoYS published its two inaugural articles on 1st May 2018. In spite of yoga’s popularity, there are no RCTs that have examined the effects of Hatha yoga—the most widely practiced form in North America ( 15 ) for improving functional fitness among community-dwelling, sedentary older adults. Yoga may serve as an alternate form of therapy to improve balance, mobility, and strength among older adults and combat age-related functional declines. Jones The instructors in both groups monitored participants’ attendance over the course of the 8-week program. Aschbacher It is expected that practice of these postures over the course of the 8-week intervention is likely to have resulted in the functional gains reported in this study. The intervention effect sizes observed in our study ranged from .05 to .47 (medium to large effects), which were also comparable with previous findings ( 14 , 15 ). Takahashi . Ganesh SA Jun 19, 2015, 9:39 AM The term yoga is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘yuj’ meaning to unite; the union of the individual self with the supreme self. However, only 19.9% of adults aged 45–64 years meet the Physical Activity Guidelines for muscle-strengthening physical activity, with the numbers dropping to 14.1% for older adults aged 65 years and older ( 3 ). Jones Pelletier More recently, Tiedemann and colleagues ( 12 ) found significant improvements in balance and mobility following a 12-week Iyengar yoga intervention among community-dwelling older adults. Yoga is an ancient practice; it has been associated with cultural, religious and physical activity for more than 2,000 years. . S Similarly, practice of the tree pose ( vrikshasana ) focuses on balance by working one side of the body at a time. Pate Single-armed yoga interventions ( 8 ) and cross-sectional studies ( 13 ) with aging yoga practitioners also demonstrate improvements in strength, flexibility, and balance as measured by the 30-second chair stand, arm curl, balance, and back scratch tests of the Senior Fitness Test battery. Each class consisted of a warm up and a cool down, and the participants completed 10–12 repetitions of 8–10 different exercises led by a certified personal trainer. As the ‘study of Yoga’ is a broad and varied subject, the scope of JoYS is inclusive of all forms of rigorous intellectual activity including but not limited to Religious Studies, Modern, Medieval and Classical History of South Asia, Indology, Philology, Philosophy, Anthropology, Sociology, Political Studies, Literature and Arts. IM Simonsick Allowing for 15% attrition, we planned to recruit 40 participants per treatment condition to maximize power. Another limitation is the absence of a follow-up timepoint to examine long-term adherence and sustained effects of yoga practice on functional fitness outcomes.

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